- The Development of Nazi Policy Towards the German-Jewish “MISCHLINGE” 1933-1945 by Jeremy Noakes. – Published 1989 by LEO BAECK YEAR BOOK 34:291-354. Edition Language: English.
Internally-Inconsistent Nazi German Policies Towards Those of Mixed Jewish-German Ancestry. Deliberate Nazi Sparing of Certain German Jews By Re-Labeling Them Honorary Aryans
Both the Nazis and the German Jews adopted an attitude of exclusion towards the MISCHLINGE. Noakes comments, “The MISCHLINGE felt themselves to be Germans and the Jews wanted nothing to do with them.” (p. 304).
ARBITRARY FACTORS IN THE NAZI CLASSIFICATION OF JEWS
The Reich Citizenship Decree of November 1935, commonly known as part of the Nuremberg Laws, defined a first-degree MISCHLINGE as a German citizen with two Jewish grandparents: A German citizen with a single Jewish grandparent was a second-degree MISCHLINGE. (p. 311). However, these criteria were not as clear-cut as commonly supposed, and their internal inconsistencies could favor Jews as well as disfavor them. For instance, Noakes quips, “Similarly, someone could have two grandparents of Jewish blood and two grandparents who were half-Jews (i. e. have 75% Jewish blood), but he would only count as a Jew if one of the half-Jewish grandparents belonged to the Jewish faith, since under the law it was not permitted to add up percentages of Jewish blood. The decree defined grandparents as either full Jews or full Aryans depending on their religion.” (p. 315).
DOES THE CANDIDATE EXHIBIT A JEWISH APPEARANCE OR A JEWISH SPIRIT?
The Nazis authorities did not rely solely on biological descent in order to categorize people having known or suspected Jewish ancestry. For instance, Hitler apparently placed great weight on the “Aryan” appearance of the petitioners, as shown in photographs, and other criteria which included the manifestation of an “Aryan” mental attitude. (p. 316; See also p. 299 and 318).
BELIEVE IT OR NOT: NAZI ANTI-SEMITIC POLICIES COULD ACTUALLY GROW LESS RADICAL WITH TIME
Author Jeremy Noakes suggests that, had Nazi Germany won the war, the MISCHLINGE first degree would have shared the fate of the Jews, and the second-degree MISCHLINGE would have undergone selective sterilization and further discrimination. (p. 354). However, he cites no documents, or presents any other evidence, to support what clearly are his speculative statements.
What the Nazis would actually have done would strongly depend upon historical contingencies. Moreover, the Nazis had long shown themselves willing to sacrifice ideology in favor of pragmatics (e. g, the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact). This consideration extended to Jewish-related matters (e. g, the Eichmann-Kastner deal). What if the eventual German-Allied peace treaty had called for the partial or total amnesty of Europe’s remaining Jews?
A number of features, of Nazism itself, make it especially difficult to forecast future Nazi conduct towards Jews. The first of these is that Nazi changes in policy, towards Jews, did not necessarily grow more radically anti-Semitic with time. They could actually go in the opposite direction. For instance, the “Aryan Paragraph” of April 1933 had made no differentiation between the quarter- and half-Jews [the eventual MISCHLINGE], and full-blooded Jews. The later Nuremberg Laws (November 1935) DID—thus effectively making Nazi policies LESS anti-Semitic. (p. 353; See also p. 320). In another example, first-degree MISCHLINGE were excluded from the DEUTSCHE STUDENTENSCHAFT in the first few years of Nazi rule, while second-degree MISCHLINGE were treated the same as Aryan Germans. None other than the Fuhrer changed all that. Noakes writes, “However, from the first semester of 1937 onwards, MISCHLINGE first degree were also admitted to the STUDENTENSCHAFT following a directive from Hitler.” (p. 327).
A second major factor that makes it difficult to forecast future Nazi behavior towards Jews is the fact that there never had been a monolithic, equivalently-radical, Nazi set of standards, on how to deal with Jews, in the first place! It all depended upon the particular Nazi official, and on who was in charge at the time. (p. 341). Consider Bernhard Losener, an officer for racial affairs in the REICH Interior Ministry. He was instrumental in getting the aforementioned 1933 decrees softened to make out of the MISCHLINGE a separate, less-persecuted class that was largely differentiated from the full-blooded German Jews. (p. 305, 313, 318, 337, 353). Consider also Wilhelm Stuckart, a high-ranking SS officer who carried a great deal of political “clout”. (p. 353). He argued for less discriminatory laws against MISCHLINGE in education, employment, and marriage. (pp. 320-321; p. 342).
I now focus on a special class of part- and full-blooded Jews which the Nazis not only spared, but relabeled Aryans, thus making them into Honorary Aryans.
—The following are direct quotes–
THE GERMAN BLOOD CERTIFICATE REDEFINES CERTAIN GERMAN JEWS AS GERMAN GENTILES
Under §7 of the First Supplementary Decree to the REICH Citizenship law of 14th November 1935, it was also possible for Hitler to grant exemptions from the definitions of a Jew and a MISCHLINGE contained in this decree…If granted, such exemptions took the form of so-called DEUTSCHBLUTIGKEITSERKLARUNGEN through which petitioners were given the official status of Aryans. However, these declarations did not normally give exemption from Party regulations or from those of the Hereditary Farm Law of 29th September 1933 unless this was specifically stated. It was also possible for so-called GELTUNGSJUDEN, i. e. half-Jews who counted as Jews under §5 of the decree, to be given the status of MISCHLINGE first degree, or for MISCHLINGE first degree to be “promoted” to MISCHLINGE second decree under a similar procedure. By May 1941, there had been 263 such positive decisions in all out of 9,636 petitions…From May 1939, those granted such petitions were informed they would also be valid for their offspring and that they could in future describe themselves as of German blood in questionnaires. The REICHSSIPPENAMT was instructed to provide them with appropriate certificates, which, however, unlike the normal ones, were bright blue. (pp.318-319; See also p. 336).
—End of direct quotes—
The existence of even one Jewish Honorary Aryan demolishes the Holocaust supremacist argument that the Nazis had a unique obsession or goal of exterminating every single Jew, moreover regardless of the cost.
For further analysis of the German Jews who were made into Honorary Aryans, along with implications of the same, please read my detailed review, of LIVES OF HITLER’S JEWISH SOLDIERS.
- Source: GoodReads.com , January 25, 2019
Published with the author’s permission.
Title image: This photograph shows Dr. Sophie Ehrhardt (on the right), a staff member of Robert Ritter’s Eugenic and CriminalBiological Research Station (Rassenhygienische und Kriminalbiologische Forschungsstelle), at the Reich Health Office,Berlin, matching a Gypsy woman’s eye color with samples on an eye color chart, ca. 1939. Courtesy of Bundesarchiv Koblenz, R 165. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum Photo Archive – „Persecution and Segregation” page 162. / selected by wg.pco